Wir haben dieses Thema „Der Mont-Royal und seine Bedeutung in der Geschichte des Rheinlandes“ gewählt, weil eine Reihe von Bekannten an uns. Übersetzung für 'royal' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. ähnliches Wort für royal; anderes Wort für royal; Bedeutung von royal. beliebte Synonyme. angesehen (achtunggebietend); königlich (achtunggebietend); heilig.
ᐅ Royal Synonym | Alle Synonyme - Bedeutungen - Ähnliche WörterRoyal (englisch und französisch für „königlich“) steht für: Royal Bay, Bucht Südgeorgiens, Südatlantik; Royal-Tarock, Wettkampfvariante des ungarischen. Royal Definition: Royal is used to indicate that something is connected with a king, queen, or emperor, or | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und. ähnliches Wort für royal; anderes Wort für royal; Bedeutung von royal. beliebte Synonyme. angesehen (achtunggebietend); königlich (achtunggebietend); heilig.
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Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman, but of lower rank than the woman to whom she attended. Although she may either have been a retainer or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a secretary , courtier or companion to her mistress than a servant.
In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting, often referred to as palace woman , was often in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high-ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress.
In courts where polygamy was practised, a court lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services, and she could become his wife , consort , courtesan , or concubine.
Lady-in-waiting or court lady is often a generic term for women whose relative rank, title, and official functions varied, although such distinctions were also often honorary.
A royal woman may or may not be free to select her ladies, and, even when she has such freedom, her choices are usually heavily influenced by the sovereign, her parents, her husband, or the sovereign's ministers for example, in the Bedchamber Crisis.
The development of the office of lady-in-waiting in Europe is connected to that of the development of a royal court. During the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, Hincmar describes the royal household of Charles the Bald in the De Ordine Palatii from , in which he states that court officials took orders from the queen as well as the king.
Already Merovingian queens are assumed to have had their personal servants, and in the 9th century it is confirmed that Carolingian queens had an entourage of guards from the nobility as a sign of their dignity, and some officials are stated to belong to the queen rather than the king.
In the late 12th century, the queens of France are confirmed to have had their own household, and noblewomen are mentioned as ladies-in-waiting. The role of ladies-in-waiting in Europe changed dramatically during the age of the Renaissance , when a new ceremonial court life, where women played a significant part, developed as representation of power in the courts of Italy and spread to Burgundy , from Burgundy to France, and to the rest of the courts of Europe.
During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, however, most European courts started to reduce their court staff, often due to new economic and political circumstances which made court representation more questionable.
The duties of ladies-in-waiting varied from court to court, but functions historically discharged by ladies-in-waiting included proficiency in the etiquette , languages, dances, horse riding, music making, and painting prevalent at court; keeping her mistress abreast of activities and personages at court; care of the rooms and wardrobe of her mistress; secretarial tasks; supervision of servants, budget and purchases ; reading correspondence to her mistress and writing on her behalf; and discreetly relaying messages upon command.
In the late Middle Ages, when the court of the emperor no longer moved around constantly, the household of the empress, as well as the equivalent household of the German princely consorts, started to develop a less fluid and more strict organisation with set court offices.
The court model of the Duchy of Burgundy, as well as the Spanish court model, came to influence the organisation of the Austrian imperial court during the 16th century, when the Burgundian Netherlands , Spain and Austria was united through the Habsburg dynasty.
In , a set organisation was finally established for the Austrian Imperial court which came to be the characteristic organisation of the Austrian-Habsburg court roughly kept from this point onward.
The ladies-in waiting have historically been chosen by the queen herself from the noblewomen of the Catholic noble houses of Belgium. The chief functions at court were undertaken by members of the higher nobility, involving much contact with the royal ladies.
Belgian princesses were assigned a lady upon their 18th birthdays. Princess Clementine was given a dame by her father, a symbolic acnowledgement of adulthood.
When the queen entertains, the ladies welcome guests and assist the hostess in sustaining conversation. In Cambodia, the term "ladies-in-waiting" refers to high ranking female servants who served food and drink, fanned and massaged, and sometimes provided sexual services to the King.
Conventionally, these women could work their way up from maids to ladies-in-waiting, concubines , or even queen consort.
The six favorite court ladies of King Sisowath of Cambodia were probably initially drawn from the ranks of classical royal dancers of the lower class.
He was noted for having the most classical dancers as concubines. The imperial celestial dancer, Apsara , was one of these. This practice of drawing from the ranks of royal dancers began in the Golden Age of the Khmer Kingdom.
Several Canadian ladies-in-waiting have also been appointed to the Royal Household of Canada. Canadian ladies-in-waiting are typically appointed in order to assist the Queen of Canada when carrying out official duties in Canada and royal tours in the country.
Five Canadian ladies-in-waiting were made lieutenants of the Royal Victorian Order. The ladies-in-waiting in China, referred to as palace women , palace ladies or court ladies , were all formally if not always in practice a part of the emperors harem, regardless of their task, and could be promoted by him to the rank of official concubine, consort or even empress.
At least during the Song dynasty — , the palace women were divided in three groups: Imperial women, consisting of concubines and consorts; Imperial daughters, consisting of daughters and sisters of the emperor; and the female officials and assistants, who performed a wide range of tasks and could potentially be promoted to that of concubine or consort.
During the Ming Dynasty — , palace women were sorted into roughly the same three categories as in the Song.
Throughout the Ming, there was frequent movement between the palace service industry and the low levels of the imperial harem. As the Ming dynasty progressed, living and working conditions for palace women began to deteriorate.
Due to slanderous literary propaganda written and spread by male officials and Confucian authors, higher-class female officials also saw their power begin to weaken throughout the Ming.
This system was roughly the same during the Qing dynasty — , when there were also a class of Imperial women selected immediately as consorts or concubines, but the class of female court attendants were all available to be promoted to concubines and consorts by the emperor.
The early modern Danish court was organized according to the German court model, in turn inspired by the Imperial Austrian court model, from the 16th century onward.
This hierarchy was roughly in place from the 16th century until the death of king Christian IX of Denmark in It was not until the end of the 15th-century and early 16th-century that emulation of the new courts of the Italian Renaissance made ladies-in-waiting fashionable in official court ceremonies and representation, and female court offices became more developed and numerous in the French court as well as in other European courts.
During the First Empire , the principal lady in waiting of the empress was the dame d'honneur , followed by between 20 and 36 dames du palais.
The early modern Princely courts in Germany were modeled after the imperial Austrian court model. After the end of the German Roman Holy Empire in and the establishment of several minor kingdoms in Germany, the post of Staatsdame married ladies-in-waiting were introduced in many German princely and royal courts.
At the Imperial German court, the ladies-in-waiting were composed of one Oberhofmeisterin in charge of several Hofstaatsdamen or Palastdamen.
The only specifically female dignity was that of the Zoste patrikia , the chief lady-in-waiting and female attendant of the empress, who was the head of the women's court and often a relative of the empress; this title existed at least since the 9th-century.
The Kingdom of Greece was established in and its first queen Amalia of Oldenburg organized the ladies-in-waiting of its first royal court in one Grande-Maitresse, followed by the second rank dame d'honneur , and the third rank dame de palais.
Prior to unification, the greatest of the Italian states was the Kingdom of Naples, later called Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The ladies-in-waiting of the queen of the Two Sicilies were, in composed of one Dama di Onore or 'Lady of Honor', placed in rank as number two after the Cavaliere di Onore , and followed by three Dama di Compagnia or 'Lady Companions' number four in rank after the Cavalerizzo and a large number of Dame di Corte or 'Court Ladies'.
Italy was united in to the Kingdom of Italy in In Japan, the imperial court offices was normally reserved for members of the court aristocracy and the ladies-in-waiting or palace attendants were commonly educated members of the nobility.
During the Heian period — women could hold court offices of substantial responsibility, managing the affairs of the emperor.
During the Sengoku period — , the highest rank of a lady-in-waiting was "female assistant to the major counselor", who ran the affairs of the daily life of the imperial household.
In contrast to China, women palace attendants managed the palace of the imperial harem rather than eunuchs , and could hold high court offices in the emperor's personal household.
Gungnyeo literally "palace women" is a Korean term referring to women who wait upon the King and other royalty in traditional Korean society.
It is short for gungjung yeogwan , which translates as "a lady officer of the royal court". Gungnyeo includes sanggung palace matron  and nain assistant court ladies , both of which hold rank as officers.
The term is also used more broadly to encompass women in a lower class without a rank such as musuri lowest maids in charge of odd chores , gaksimi , sonnim , uinyeo female physicians as well as nain and sanggung.
The court of the Duchy of Burgundy, which was situated in the Netherlands in the 15th century, was famous for its elaborate ceremonial court life and became a role model for several other courts of Europe.
In the 16th century, the ladies-in-waiting in the courts of the Habsburg governors of the Netherlands, Margaret of Austria and Mary of Hungary governor of the Netherlands , was composed of one hofmeesteres 'Court mistress' or dame d'honneur who served as the principal lady in waiting; one hofdame or Mere de filles , who was second in rank and deputy of the hofmeesteres as well as being in charge of the eredames maid of honour , also known as demoiselle d'honneur , fille d'honneur or Junckfrauen , and finally the chamber maids, kameniersters , all with different titles depending on language in the multilingual area of the Netherlands.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands was founded in , signifying the organisation of a royal court.